Book Review – “Universal Foam” by Sidney Perkowitz, Anchor Books, 2000

I cannot even remember how I found this book among the Ottawa Public Library’s lists, but I did and then was attracted to the subject as a matter of science. This is an informative book on an interesting subject that can easily be read on a snowy afternoon – preferably with a cappuccino. You will learn more about foam in those few hours than you ever thought possible. You may even bubble over with enthusiasm and spend another afternoon considering some chapters in greater detail or looking up Perkowitz’s references.

This is a witty, somewhat playful book and it encourages the reader to do what I just did above which is only excusable as an illustration of the properties of foam and its universality in our lives. Perkowitz begins with a description of the basic science of foam and then proceeds to illustrate these properties through considerations of types of foam with which we are all familiar. By beginning with familiar types of foam, the reader visualizes foams properties in the context of a substance she knows well – milk foam on a cappuccino or the foam of a mousse or soufflé. For example, the proteins in milk are the surfactant and heating the milk denatures the protein – breaks apart the bonds of a spherical protein such that it “unravels into long coil-shaped molecules” (page 48). I read those phrases thinking, “That’s how that works.”

From edible foams, Perkowitz moves on to such useful foams as shaving foam and foamed plastic and, again, we learn more properties of foam as they are illustrated in these substances. Then, however, the reader is brought into one of the main premises of Perkowitz’s book: understanding foam helps us to understand life, since the cellular matrix on which all life is based highly resembles foam.

From this consideration of how foam mimics the cellular matrix, Perkowitz begins a discussion of the foams that are present in the earth’s structure: pumice, sea foam. These descriptions allow the reader to consider the “global role of foam and its ties to the innermost and outermost processes of our planet” (page 145).

Perkowitz’s final consideration is of foam beyond the boundaries of earth into our solar system and galaxies beyond. I was fascinated by his account of how panels of aerogel will be deployed by the Stardust spaceship to trap small particles from the coma of the comet WILD-2. These small particles, we are told, “will slam into the aerogel at speeds of 14,000 miles per hour. Among all known materials, aerogel is the only one that can bring these tiny hyperbullets to a screeching halt with little damage.” (page149) Those few trapped particles will be studied to help us learn more about the cosmos.

Apart from the value of foam in learning about the cosmos, Perkowitz ultimately discusses how even the universe is structured like the bubbles of foam, how quanta are related to foam and “how the big bang theory views the cosmos as an expanding bubble of space and time that is now billions of light years across.” (page 157). A physicist himself, Perkowitz often reminds the reader of the tremendous contribution of the 20th century’s iconic physicist, Albert Einstein. Perkowitz’s book, however, brings to mind Einstein’s quote, which example this book follows:

“The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility.”

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